Lateral column midfoot injury. Do they all need fixation?
G. Airey, J. Aamir, J. Chapman, H. Tanaka, M. Elbannan, A. Singh, J. Mangwani, H. Kyaw, L. Jeyaseelan, L. Mason
1Liverpool University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool Orthopaedic and Trauma Service, Liverpool, United Kingdom
2University of Liverpool, Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, Liverpool, United Kingdom
3Aneurin Bevan University Health Board, Newport, United Kingdom
4Leicester Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Leicester, United Kingdom
5 Barts Health NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
Background: Research on midfoot injuries have primarily concentrated on the central column and the Lisfranc ligament without amassing evidence on lateral column injuries. Lateral column injuries have historically been treated with Kirschner wire fixation when encountered.
Objective: Our aim in this study was to analyse lateral column injuries to the midfoot, their method of treatment and the radiological lateral column outcomes. Our nul hypothesis being that fixation is required to obtain and maintain lateral column alignment.
Methods: Data was retrospectively collected from four centres on surgically treated midfoot fracture dislocations between 2011 and 2021. Radiographs were analysed using departmental PACS. All statistics was performed using SPSS 26.
Results: A total of 235 cases were diagnosed as having a lateral column injury out of the 409 cases included. On cross tabulation, there was a significant association with having a central column injury (234/235, p<.001) and 70% of cases (166/235) also had an additional medial column injury. Of the 235 lateral column injuries, data was available regarding fixation radiographic alignment on 222 cases. There were 44 cases which underwent Kirschner wire fixation, 23 plate fixations and 3 screw fixations. Lateral column alignment loss was seen in 2.84% (4/141) of those which didn’t undergo fixation, 13.64% (6/44) which underwent K wires, and 0 % in those fixed by screws or K wires.
Conclusion: Lateral column injury occurs in over half of midfoot fractures in this study. It rarely occurs alone and is most commonly related to three column injuries. Nevertheless, following stabilisation of the central column, additional fixation of injuries to the lateral column do not appear beneficial. The use of a bridge plate to fix the central column appears protective and purely ligamentous injury was a higher risk than an injury that included the bone.
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